The birthplace of Lao PDR, Houaphanh province draws visitors for its historical significance. The system of caves in the district of Vieng Xay, known as the ‘Hidden Cave City’, used to serve as a refuge for the Pathet Lao, accommodating over 20,000 people during the Secret War, and now features a museum dedicated to the history of this period. The Nam Et-Phou Louey National Protected Area, one of the largest in Laos, boasts a high level of biodiversity with several endangered species such as tiger, gaur, Sambar deer, and white-cheeked gibbon. Located about 60 km from the provincial capital of Xam Neua, the Hintang Archaeological Park is distinguished for ancient standing rock slabs and stone disks of over 2000 years old, whose origin remains largely unknown. Houaphanh is also home to the best Tai Daeng woven textiles in the country.